A hollow, natural growth of wood, or kobu, is decorated with a restrained warbler at Rohwer, Arkansas. From Eaton’s “Beauty Behind Barbed Wire,” 1952, 107.


Panel section photo credits: Fujita carving, David Izu 2018; Ando carving, Tarim Kemp, 2108; Takano carving, David Izu 2018; San Jose carving, Nancy Ukai 2017; Oregon Nikkei carving, Lucy Capehart, 2017; unfinished Morita panel and “no-bird” Morita carving, David Izu 2018, panels 8 and 9 tbd


Plum and bush warbler rendered in cloth with embroidery at Gila River, Arizona, by Matsuye Makishima, 1942-1945. Courtesy Dennis Makishima.